Basic IPO FAQs

What are the steps in an IPO Process?

An Initial Public Offering (IPO), is when shares of a private company are first offered to the public. This is an important step in the business' growth. An IPO is where the Issuer seeks out the help of an underwriting company to determine the type and price of the security, the maximum offering price, the number of shares, and the time it will be brought to market.

Selection of Investment Bank

When the company's management has made the unanimous decision to go public, they must first find an investment bank or conglomerate investment banks that will underwrite the company. The underwriters purchase shares from the company and then resell them to public. A company should also employ lawyers to help them navigate the legal maze of an IPO setup.

For the SEBI to perform intensive financial health checks, it must have detailed financial records. While some companies might choose to sell shares directly through the stock exchange, most prefer the process through the underwriters.

These are the top steps in India's IPO Process:

  1. Preparation of the Registration Statement
  2. Preparing the Draft Red Herring Prospectus.
  3. The Roadshow (Marketing an IPO)
  4. Approved by SEBI and Stock Exchanges
  5. Deciding on Issue Size and Price
  6. IPO opens for public bidding
  7. Issue Price Determination & Share Allotment
  8. Listing and Unblocking funds

Here are the details of each step:

Step 1: Preparation and signing of the registration statement

The company must file a registration statement with the SEBI to begin the IPO process. This includes a detailed report on its financial health and business plans. The SEBI reviews the report and conducts its own background checks. SEBI must verify that the registration statement meets all requirements and conforms to all regulations.

Step 2: Get the prospectus ready

The company must prepare a preliminary Red Herring prospectus while it waits for approval. This prospectus includes financial information, future plans, and the expected price range. Prospective investors interested in purchasing the stock should consult this prospectus. The prospectus also contains a warning regarding the IPO pending approval by SEBI.

Step 3: The Roadshow

After the prospectus has been approved, the underwriters and company representatives travel to the country's major trade hubs. They promote the company's IPO to select buyers (usually corporates or HNIs).

They receive detailed information about the company's future plans, growth potential, and other pertinent details. These tours give them a sense of the investor response and help them to attract big investors.

Step 4: SEBI Approval & Go ahead

After SEBI has reviewed the registration statement, it declares it to be effective. This gives the go-ahead for the IPO and a date. It may ask for amendments before it approves. Without the SEBI amendments, the prospectus can't be made available to the public. The company must choose a stock exchange to which it plans to sell shares, and then get listed.

Step 5: Deciding on a price band and share number

With the assistance of the underwriters, the company decides on the price range and the number of shares that will be sold after approval by SEBI.

There's two types of issues: Fixed-Price IPO and Book Building IPO

  • Fixed Price Issue - The company determines the share price and number of shares to be sold. Ex: ABC Ltd's public issue of 10 million shares with a face value of Rs 10/- each, at a premium rate of Rs 55//e each, is open to the public and generates Rs 5 Crores.
  • Book Building IPO - The company can discover the issue's price by issuing a Book building issue. The price range is set by the company and the investor has the option of choosing the price at which they wish to purchase shares. Ex: ABC Ltd issues 10 lakh shares with a face value of Rs 10/- each, at a price range of Rs 60 to 70. This makes it possible for the public to purchase up to Rs 7 Crores. The amount generated by the issue will depend on how many investors bid the highest amount.

Step 6: Public sale

The shares will be made available to the public on the dates stated in the prospectus. Investors can complete the IPO application and indicate the price they would like to purchase the shares. Then, submit the application.

Step 7: Determination Of Issue price & Share Allotment

After the subscription period has ended, members of the underwriting bank, share issuing firm, etc.  The price at which shares are to be allotted will determine when meet. The prospective investors will be able to determine the share price and meet with the underwriting banks. The demand for shares and the price offered by investors would determine the price. After the price has been finalized, investors will be allocated shares based on the available shares and the bid amounts.

Not all applicants will be granted shares in the event of an oversubscribed issue.

Step 8: Listing and Unblocking of Funds

The final step is to be listed on the Stock Exchanges. Investors who applied through ASBA and to whom shares were allotted will see their shares credited to DEMAT accounts. Funds would also be debited from their bank accounts. For those investors who were not allotted shares, the funds would remain unblocked in their account.

What do you mean by IPO?

By whom the 'Price Band' is decided?

'Date of issue' is decided by whom?

What a registrar of an IPO does?

What is role of Lead managers in IPO?

What does 'follow on Public offering' or FPO means?

What are Primary market & Secondary market?

How can you define the life cycle of an IPO prospectus?

What are the life cycle of an IPO?

what are the basic differences between Book building and fixed price issue

How is Floor price different from Cut-off price for a book - building issue

Differentiate between RII,NII,QIB, & Anchor Investor

Retail investor, I would like to invest more than Rs 1 lakhs in an IPO. What is the best way to invest in the Non-institutional bidders' category? What are the pros and cons of investing in this category?

Is PAN number mandatory for applying in an IPO?

IPO remains open for how many days?

After submitting the application in IPO,what details I should keep?

For an IPO,what is the 'Market lot size' & 'Minimum Order quantity'?

Will I get guaranteed amount of shares if applying for an IPO?

Is investing in IPOs less riskier than in direct stock market?

Can someone apply through more than one application in IPO with the same name?