Basics Of Share Market

Stock market indices

Stock markets have thousands of companies, making it difficult to keep track of each one. Stock market indices were created to help you monitor each company. Market indices are a group of selected stocks from companies that is regularly measured to determine the performance of the overall market and a specific segment.

An index is a tool that helps investors to understand the health and performance of the stock market. It also allows them to analyze market sentiment and compare individual stocks.

Nifty-50 and Sensex are two of the most popular benchmark indices. They largely reflect performance at Bombay Stock Exchange, (BSE), and National Stock Exchange, (NSE). Nifty Bank and other sectoral indices can be used to understand the performance of each sector in the stock market. Nifty Auto, etc.

It is an index.


A selection of stocks that are similar to those listed on the exchange is made and then grouped together to create an index. The industry, size, market capitalization, or other factors may all play a role in this classification. The BSE Sensex, for example, is an index that includes 30 stocks. The BSE 500 index is similar and consists of 500 stocks.

To calculate the index's value, the values of the stocks in the group are used. An index's value will change if the stock prices change. An index therefore reflects market changes.

These are some of the most important indicators in India:

  • Benchmark indices are  NSE Nifty and BSE Sensex
  • Sectoral indices such as CNX IT and BSE Bankex
  • Market capitalization-based indexes such as the BSE Smallcap or BSE Midcap are available.
  • Broad-market indices such as BSE 100 or BSE 500


Stock market indices are an important component. Here are the reasons we need stock indexes:


There are many companies that can be listed on a sharemarket. How can you distinguish between them all and choose which ones to invest in? How can you distinguish them? This is the classic example of a pin in a pile of hay. Here is where indexes come in. The indices are created by combining the shares of companies and other key characteristics such as size, industry, or sector.


Indices are representative of the whole market or of a specific segment of it. The benchmark indices in India are the NSE Nifty and the BSE Sensex. These indices are used to measure the market's overall performance. An index of IT stocks should also be used to reflect all companies in the sector.


An index allows investors to easily compare their performance. An index can also be used to provide a benchmark against which to compare. In India, the Sensex is a common benchmark. To determine if a stock outperformed the market you can simply compare the price trends for the stock and the index. An index can be used to compare stocks against another benchmark or other index. An index can be used to compare a set of stocks against a benchmark or another index. However, the rally that the benchmark index, Sensex, may experience on a particular day may not reach certain stocks such as IT. This could allow for comparison of the index that represents IT stocks and not each stock. Investors can also identify market trends more easily by using this method.


Stock market movements are influenced by investor sentiment. Positive sentiment will lead to more stock market demand. This will increase stock prices. It can be difficult to accurately gauge investor sentiment. Indices can help you gauge investor sentiment. They are not only useful for assessing the overall market but also sector-wise and across different company sizes. To see if an index has outperformed or underperformed a benchmark, you can simply compare it with that benchmark. This will reflect investor sentiment.

Passive investment

Investors often prefer to invest in securities that are closely related to an index. Passive investment is also known as this. Index portfolios help investors reduce the cost of stock selection and research. The index is used to help them select stocks. Portfolio returns will therefore match the index's. An example: If the Sensex gives 8% returns in a month, a portfolio that is similar to the Sensex will likely also give the same returns. You can also use Indices to create mutual funds or exchange-traded funds.


An index is a group of stocks that are of similar kind. It could be based on industry, company size or market capitalization, or any other parameter. The index value is calculated after the stocks have been selected. This could simply be the average of all the component prices. The free-float market capitalization in India is often used to calculate the value of an index value.

The two most common kinds of indices are - Price-weighted and the market capitalization-weighted index.

What's stock weightage?

Each stock has a different value. A 1% increase in one stock's stock price may not be equivalent to a similar change at another stock. The index value is not simply a sum of all stocks' prices. This is where the stock weightage concept comes in. Each stock in an index is assigned a weightage based on its market capitalization or price. This refers to the impact that a stock's change in price has on the index value.

  • Market-cap

    Market capitalization refers to the stock's total market value. This is done by adding the share price of the stock to the total number of shares floated by the company. This takes into account both the stock's size and price. Stocks are given weightage on the basis of their market capitalization in comparison with the total market capitalization of the index in an index using market-cap weightage. If stock A has a market cap of Rs. 10,000, while the index it's part of has an m-cap total of Rs. 1,00,000. Then its weightage would be 10%. Similar to the above, another stock that has a market-cap Rs. A weightage of 50% will be given to a stock with a market-cap of Rs.

    Remember that the market capitalization of a stock fluctuates with its stock price. Stock's weightage also changes daily. It is often a small change. Also, the market capitalization-weightage method gives more importance to companies with higher m-caps.

    In India, most indices use free-float market capitalization. This method uses only the number of shares that are publicly available for trading, rather than the total shares listed by a company. Market capitalization has a lower free-float value than free-float.

  • Weightage

    This method calculates an index value based on the stock price of the company, not market capitalization. Stocks that have higher stock prices are given greater weightage in the index than those with lower stock prices. Examples of price-weighted indices include the Dow Jones Industrial Average in America and the Nikkei 225 Japan.

    Other types of weightages exist, such as fundamental or equal-value weightage. They are not used in public indices.


The value of an index depends on whether it's a market-cap-weighted or price-weighted. Let's take the BSE Sensex as an example to show how an index is calculated.

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