Calculating PE Ratio In Share Market

A common ratio used for stock selection is the PE (price to earnings). This ratio is used to determine the company's value based on its current stock price per share and future earnings. The P/E ratio is used to determine the company's current worth and future growth based on its share price relative to its earnings per shares.

The PE ratio is a widely-used tool for market evaluation. It has proven to be an important factor that investors use to make investment decisions. Investors can deduce that the stock's value is too high by looking at the PE ratio and either sell or abstain from buying. Investors can purchase shares at lower prices to make profits when the share's unrealised value is reached. The average PE is 14 but it can vary between companies and industries.

Example and calculation of PE

Divide the current stock value by earnings per share (EPS) to calculate the P/E ratio. You can find the current trading price of company stock on any financial website online. This will give you the present stock value (P). This is an absolute number that determines how willing investors are to trade company stock. The EPS is an estimate number that can be interpreted in many ways.

Below is the formula and calculation that was used to calculate this ratio:

P/E Ratio = Market value per share / Earnings per share

Two ways to estimate EPS (Earnings per share) are available. The first is an estimate. "TTM" stands for "trailing within the past 12 month." This number shows the company's performance over the last year. Stock investors may be interested in long-term valuation. They will analyse the company's P/E 10 and P/E 30 measures. These measures provide an indication of the company’s profit over the past 10 to 30 years.

The second type of EPS is calculated based on an organization's profit projections. It considers the company's best estimate of its earnings in the near future.

Types and ratios of PE:

There are two types of PE ratios depending on how EPS is calculated: forward-looking and trailing.

Trailing price to earnings:

The trailing P/E is a measure of the company's past performance. It is calculated by subtracting the stock price from the total EPS earnings for the previous year. This is one of the most popular and reliable PE metrics because it uses actual data about the company's profits.Prudent investors base their financial decisions on the trailing PE, since future earnings estimates might not be reliable.. Investors must be aware that past performance is not always indicative of future behavior.

The trailing P/E ratio does not reflect real-time company situations. Although trailing P/E ratios reflect the most recent price movement in a company stock, earnings are still the quarterly earnings. While the stock price may change every few hours, it does not capture any updates from the company. However, the trailing PE ratio is more or less constant, as the EPS is older. Some investors prefer the forward PE to the trailing PE.

Forward Price to Earn

Forward (or driving) P/E uses estimated future income, not trailing earnings figures. This is also called the estimated cost of earnings. This indicator can be used to compare the company's current and future incomes and give a better idea of how the company's profits will turn out.

FPE can be used to assess future earnings, but it has its limitations. In order to underestimate earnings, organizations can try manipulating the estimates PE ratio in an effort to exceed the quarterly gains. Stock prices can be pushed higher by overestimating P/E, which could lead to earnings estimates being missed. This estimation can cause stock prices to go up or down, and investors may not realize their expected returns.

Relationship between forward- and trailing P/E ratios:

Both forward and trailing P/E ratios offer their advantages and drawbacks, but investors should use them wisely, depending on the overall investment strategy they have and their current portfolio.

Investors expect earnings to rise if the forward P/E ratio exceeds the trailing one.

Using PE ratios to determine Investment Strategies:

PE ratios help in share selection. An excellent investment is a stock with a low trailing PE. A high P/E is usually a sign that the stock price is not worth the earnings. High growth companies such as technology companies may have higher P/E rates because of the potential for higher growth. A high ratio doesn't necessarily mean that shares are too expensive if the market is buoyant. While P/E ratios can be used to choose stocks, it is important to estimate and compare the total ratio in order to reap long-term profits.

Comparing Businesses Using the P/E Ratio:

The PE ratio is used to compare stock prices for companies in the same industry or sector and who are subject to the same socioeconomic factors. The P/E ratio of Company X selling its commodity at Rs.100 could be different from Company Y because it depends on the profits generated and the growth of the stocks. Both companies' earnings can be different. For example, X could have reported revenues of Rs. 20 per share, which would mean a PE ratio 5 and Y having an earnings of Rs. 30 shares, PE ratio 3.33. Y is more affordable, so the investor decides to invest in Y's stock because it has a higher ROI.

Sectorwise PE Ratios:

The PE ratios of different industries can vary. What is considered the benchmark for the automotive sector might not be appropriate for technology companies.

It is possible to determine if a sector is too expensive by looking at the PE ratios of all organizations in the sector or industry. This is a way to see if the industry's current values are higher than the historical average P/E.

Stock marketers use the market value of an industry to gauge how it is doing and then compare it with the stock price for a calculated judgement.


The PE ratio is interpreted based on the company's performance in comparison to its peers and competition. Keep in mind that even though a PE is high in certain industries, it can also be low in other sectors. The PE ratios of IT companies and telecom companies are higher than those in the textile or manufacturing industries.

It is important to remember that PE is affected by significant acquisitions. A lower PE could indicate that the company is facing serious problems. Before making a major investment decision, it is important to do thorough research about the company and its sector.

The PE ratio is not the only indicator of a company’s annual performance. It is affected by other factors like economic conditions, leadership efficiency and operational challenges.


The PE ratio is an important tool for understanding the company and market behavior at any time. This ratio is used by investors and companies to help them make financial decisions. It is based on the share market value and future earnings. Although the PE ratio is a comprehensive measure to assess a company's worth it can sometimes be inconsistent due to fluctuations in stock prices and earnings.

Knowing what PE is in the stock market, it's important to invest with a well-researched approach. For more information on equity trading, reach out to our experts.

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