Online Share Trading

What are bonds and how do they work?

What are bonds and how are they useful?

You must understand the different market instruments before you make investments. You must have heard the term bonds if you want to begin your investment journey. What are bonds? Here's a complete guide to bonds.

Meaning of bond

Bonds are debt instruments that allow various entities, such as corporations and the government, to raise money from the market. These funds can be used to expand businesses or for infrastructural developments. Additionally, entities can also use these funds to pay for long-term investments and to finance current expenditures. Stocks and bonds are both capital market instruments. However, investing in stocks gives you part-ownership. Bonds give you a credit stake in a company. The company is the borrower, and you are the lender.

bond definition. It is important to remember that the borrowing entity will repay you the principal amount at a predetermined date. The agreement also stipulates that the coupon payment, which is the interest payment on principal amount, will be made at regular intervals. You can pay the coupon on a monthly basis, every other month, or annually.

You must understand the meaning of bond. Bonds are an investment instrument that is generally safe and carries minimal risk.

Different types of bonds in India

Here's more information about bonds and their types. Take a look at the different kinds of bonds in this country.

Government securities

These bonds are issued either by the central government or the state. This bond is considered one of the most secure investment options because credit default risk is eliminated.

Sovereign gold bond:

These securities are issued by the RBI on behalf of government. These are an alternative to holding physical gold and are denominated as grams of gold.

Capital gains bonds

These bonds are also issued by government. These bonds allow you to transfer your capital gains. These bonds are exempt from capital gains tax if you invest within six months of receiving the capital gain.

Corporate bonds

These are issued by companies, and offer a higher rate of interest. However, they are subject to credit risk.

Convertible bond :

These bonds can be converted to stocks, if you meet the conditions.

Learn more about bond: What is bond? This is how bonds are classified based on returns.

Fixed-interest bonds

These bonds have a fixed interest rate for the entire term. These bonds have the advantage of offering a fixed interest regardless of market conditions.

Floating Interest Bonds

These bonds offer flexible rates of interest that are dependent on a variety of market variables.

Inflation-linked bond

These bonds are intended to protect the investor against inflation's effect on the coupon rate or face value. These bonds have a lower coupon than fixed-interest rate bonds.

What does bond valuation mean?

The mathematical process of bond valuation determines the theoretical fair value for a bond. To determine the bond value, you need to calculate the cash flow and the bond's face or maturity value. Bond valuation can help you determine whether the bond is an investment option. Knowing the Yield to Maturity Ratio, also known as the discount rate, is key for this process.

What is the Yield to Maturity Ratio (or yield to maturity ratio)?

When you purchase a bond, the coupon/interest rate is set beforehand. A single bond of Rs 1,000 face value and an annual interest rate at 6% will give you Rs 60 in interest. The bond's face value is determined if it was purchased directly from the issuer. The coupon rate is the same rate as the rate of return.

However, if you purchase bonds from the secondary markets, the bond's price - whether it is being bought or sold – can be higher or less than its face value. The return on the original interest rate will vary depending on whether the face value is higher or lower. The Yield to maturity ratio is a measure of the bond's return. A bond that sells at a higher price then its face value will have an increased Yield to maturity ratio.

Before you invest in bonds, here are some things to remember

Without knowing the main factors to be considered before investing, any discussion about bonds and their uses is incomplete. Here are some examples:

Compare the pros and cons of

Bonds are a long-term investment instrument that provides guaranteed returns and can be used to diversify portfolios. They are risk-free. However, bonds have their disadvantages. They offer lower returns than stock investments, and are more susceptible to inflation-related risks. Bonds are also not as liquid and easily traded as stocks. It can be difficult to sell bonds - at the desired price - before maturity.

Evaluate the risks

You must verify the credit rating of the company before you invest in bonds. Credit rating agencies may give companies a 'AAA' rating, which can indicate that they are trustworthy. Higher ratings indicate that the company is less likely to default on its credit obligations. Also, you should examine if there are call risks or scenarios in which companies may retract their bonds because of negative market factors.

Think about your investment goal

Bonds should align with your investment objectives and risk appetite. You can diversify your bond investment by investing in different types and maturities of bonds. Debt mutual funds are another option to enter the debt market.


You can invest in various types of bonds which are basically debt securities issued by different entities. It is not enough to know what a bond is and how it works. Trustworthy and reliable stockbroking firms are essential to your investment journey. You should look for features like a paperless opening process for Demat and trading account, seamless digital platforms powered with cutting-edge technology as well as comprehensive market reports, expert advice, and more.

What is Online Trading?

Trading Platform/Tools

How to invest in stock market for beginners?

Online Trading vs Offline Trading

How does online trading work?

Investment management errors that commonly occurs

Introduction to Share Trading

Stock Market Terms for the beginners.

What is the power of Compounding?

What is Limit order and how does it works?

What is Stop Loss?

What is SIP in share market?

What is Value Investing ?

Stock trading Terminologies

India Brokerage Charges

Basics of Forex Trading

Options for Investment after Retirement

Difference between Order book and Trade book

What is Radar signal Trading system?

What is Moving Averages?